che guevara to gandhi
understanding mohesen makhmalbaf
The first Mohesen Makhmalbaf film I saw was 'A Moment of Innocence' and it has stayed with me till today as my favorite film and Mohesen Makhmalbaf has become the film maker I admire most. Finally in July 2004 I got an opportunity to meet and talk to him and his family when they were in Delhi to present the works of Makhmalbaf Family for the Cinefan Film Festival. This is a compilation of many thoughts Mohesen Makhmalbaf shared in our conversation about his journey from an activist to a film maker, about his distinctive film making style, about media, education, politics and his going back from a film maker to activist which is a journey he takes very often. Makhmalbaf talks:
1. Activist to Filmmaker:
Around that time, I got interested in politics and became a political activist after seeing so much of life and conditions in my country. Influenced by the ideals of Che Guevara, my friends and I wanted to change the system and bring in the revolution. In one such activity, I decided to attack a police man and while disarming him, I ended up stabbing him. Luckily the injury was not fatal. But I ended up in jail. Later on I made 'A Moment of Innocence' which is based on this incident and my reflections on the same at a later age. I was 17 when I went to jail. I was imprisoned for about 5 years and I spent those years thinking about many issues concerning my society and the way in which we where trying to change the system. Slowly I realised that with all due respects to Che Guevara, I found Gandhi a bigger person and non violence seemed a better way to bring about the change I was seeking in my society.
When I came out of the prison I changed my position from political to cultural. I believed and still believe that the problems of Iranian society are not political and can't be solved by a change in government or a change in policy. The problems are cultural and can only be solved by changing something in peoples' minds, in their way of thinking. The Iranian society believes there is only one way of life, one language, one power and one truth. This belief leads to fascism. So when I came out of prison I started writing stories, novels, articles and later on started making films. Then came the revolution and many of my friends who were in prison with me became Presidents and Prime ministers. My friends created the revolution and I created Samira. I was 23 when Samira was born and I stayed focused on my work in the cultural area.
2. Making mirrors not windows:
To me Satyajit Ray is a mirror in Indian cinema. He put a mirror in front of the soul of India in the Trilogy, but in Bollywood I can't find the real Indian soul. Same with Hollywood. If you travel inside of USA you will see a very different kind of life, but in their cinema most of the time people are killing each other. We are sitting here talking and life goes on around us and outside, but when you see a Bollywood cinema most of the time people are dancing and fighting. It has nothing to do with the real life, this is not a mirror in front of people. Maybe Hollywood and Bollywood are something like a 'window', a window for people to find another world to merely enjoy and a business for the people who make them. Please India; Stop Bollywood!
For me and my family, film making is a cultural, political and humanist activity. It is not a business. Last year Samira was in India and she won a prize at IFFI and she got 12,000 dollars. She didn't want to take that money with her. The poor children of India have more need for that money than Samira so she donated that money in India. An artist doesn't need lots of money or fame; rather an artist needs a heart, feelings and honesty.
3. Creating fiction from reality:
And our camera work too is very close to reality. It is like looking through eyes, many people mistake our films for documentaries. But no! Every thing is planned and created, but created from the reality around us. So maybe our films are something between documentary and fiction. Like the Italian Neo Realist films which are very close to the day to day life. Forget about sets, make up, lighting and all the things the industry imposes upon us to use. This is one kind of cinema, our kind of cinema, but not the only kind or the manifesto of cinema. There should be all kinds, it is not good for the world if there is only one kind of cinema and film festivals are the democratic place to see different views on cinema.
4. Teaching to believe in oneself:
We called it the Makhmalbaf Film House and there is a little story behind the name. This was the time when I had finished my film 'A Moment of Innocence' and the Government demanded a lots of cuts in the film if we wanted to show the film in theaters. Unfortunately my producer was willing to accept those cuts because he had invested lots of money in the film. But I was not willing to accept. I told him that I will give him the money and buy the film from him. So I called my wife Marziyeh, Samira, Mysam and Hana and told them - we have two ways before us. One - keep the film and sell the house. Second - keep the house and give up the film for censorship. Every one voted for keeping the film so we sold our house and used that money to get the film back. We kept just a name instead of the house -Makhmalbaf Film House and there was no physical space, only the name. Most of the students were from family. My wife, Samira, Mysam, Hana and few friends. Our school was not a conventional film school. People learnt cooking, swimming, traveling and all kinds of things apart from film making. In the true sense I have given them only one thing - which is the ability to believe in themselves. In conventional education we kill the self confidence in children, because we keep on repeating and repeating every thing that someone has found before us. Why we are in this world if we have to follow things which have been found before? I believe If you can have some kind of an education which will teach you to believe in yourself, then miracles will happen.
5. Staying rooted in the storm:
In this century one of the most important issues we face will be the influence of satellite television. They let us know things which they think we should know and they don't let us see things which they don't want us to think about. They didn't want us to know about Afghanistan before September 11. After September 11 they told us to pay attention to Afghanistan. But after one year they told us to stop, now it is time for you to see Iraq, now after some time they will tell us stop, we will show you another truth. The Afghan women are under the Burkha of Islam, and we are under the Burkha of CNN and BBC. We have to cut it open and come out of it. One way to come out of the satellite influence is through pure cinema because cinema provides the other side of truth, and make us capable of thinking for ourselves without any influence of media which is in the hands of power. We have to start thinking freely for a better world.
It is not easy. The wind is too strong in these times in which we are living. It is blowing from all sides, but if we think for ourselves, if we think deeply, we will become rooted and will be able to stand on our own feet. So that no wind can take us away.
6. Filmmaker to Activist:
I used the post September11 atmosphere to change some things for the Afghan people. First I made the documentary 'Afghan Alphabet' about the Afghan refugee children in Iran who were not allowed to go to school because they don't have a visa or enough legal documents. 700,000 children couldn't go to school for the past 8 years because of the Iranian law. To me this was the same thing as Taliban rule in Afghanistan. I had continuous talks with Iranian Government for about 3 months and also the film was shown widely in Iran and rest of the world. Finally I could make the Iranian Government change the law and last year 500,000 Afghan children went to school in Iran. Same with Afghanistan. 98% of women and 80% men couldn't go to school in Afghanistan during Taliban time. So for 3 years I stopped film making and worked on something like 80 projects for Afghan children's education, setting up schools, finding teachers, etc. I used all my resources and all the money I got as awards. For me this was better than making a film.